What you need to know about electronic fuel injectors.

Ray T. Bohacz: EFI was adopted by the auto industry to comply with stricter emissions controls and fuel economy standards, and today many enthusiasts convert older engines to this modern design. Learn more about the fuel injector and how it operates, especially if you are planning to install a supercharger, and also recognize the injector requires service, even in naturally aspirated applications. Why EFI? Many believe that EFI improves an engine’s horsepower, but it does not. Rather it increases freedom for the intake manifold design as only air courses through it and not a mixture of fuel and air. The length of the runner that connects to the intake port in the cylinder head determines the torque output of the engine and the speed at which it will occur. The longer the runner, the more torque at a lower rpm will the engine produce. EFI allows the intake manifold runner to curve to achieve the desired length (resonant tuning) since there is no fuel present to drop out of suspension. The core component of the EFI system is the fuel injector. The injector is an electromagnet that controls a pintle that opens and closes against a seat. The engine controller (ECU) supplies 12 volts at all times when the ignition is on, and the injector is controlled by switching the ground circuit on and off. When the ground circuit is complete, the magnetic field is induced, and the pintle lifts against a spring, and fuel is passed. When the ground is turned off, the pintle is closed via spring pressure. The time in milliseconds (1/1,000) the ground is evoked,... read more

Supercharger blow-off valve explained.

The key to proper operation of the BOV involves the pressure balance surrounding its piston. By Alfred Bilk On the left side of the picture (above), the piston encounters boost pressure from the charge pipe coming from the supercharger’s compressor. On the right side of the picture the piston senses pressure or vacuum from the intake manifold, which is positioned below the throttle body or carburetor, plus the pressure from the spring. With the engine stopped, there is atmospheric pressure on both sides of the piston and the spring holds the piston closed. At idle, the left side of the piston experiences atmospheric or slightly less pressure, as the supercharger’s compressor isn’t generating boost, and the right side of the piston is exposed to the idle vacuum in the intake manifold. At idle, the BOV will be closed; if it was open, it would introduce unfiltered air into the engine. So the spring must be sufficiently strong to hold the piston closed when there is idle vacuum in the manifold, but no boost in the charge air pipe. When driving normally the compressor builds boost in the charge pipe, which the left side of the piston experiences. Also, with the throttle open, boost is present in the intake manifold below the throttle body or carburetor. So, the right side of the piston will encounter boost in the intake manifold plus the spring pressure, which should hold the BOV closed. The critical operating point and principal purpose for having the BOV is to protect the supercharger under deceleration—the catalyst for vacuum. In addition to the vacuum occurring in the intake... read more

Superchargers for Fords: common questions and other comments.

By Scott Brown: Superchargers have a fine sporting heritage, and you don’t need to be a genius to understand their perennial appeal. They are potent bolt-on concepts, and with hundreds of kits available for convenient installation, questions abound. Here are a few: Coyote power: Gen I (2011 to ‘14), Gen II (2015 to ’17), & Gen III What are TorqStorm’s plans for further development of the Coyote engines? – Bryan Debuting in 2011, Ford introduced Coyote power to the Mustang GT and to the F-150 pickup truck. To date, TorqStorm has developed supercharger systems for the Coyote Gen I and also the Gen II but with limitations. So far, the latter operates not in late-model Mustangs, but in repowering classic Ford vehicles such as the 1958 F100, the1984 Mustang SVO and others.  “Soon our focus will return to the first generation engines,” says the company’s Chris Beardsley, “as the sequential fuel injection—the multi-port system—was displaced by direct injection, which alters the supercharger’s configuration. TorqStorm aims to develop a supercharger for the Gen III engine but will follow its predecessors.” A twentieth century concept, electronic direct injection in gasoline engines was employed in production engines by Mitsubishi in 1996. Fox body without air conditioning or power steering “I need a blower kit for my Fox body Mustang no a/c no power steering pump either”–Charles The drive belt travels from the passenger side above the water pump to the a/c compressor, the power steering pump, and onward to the crank pulley. When air conditioning and power steering are omitted, a pulley must be substituted to facilitate the drive belt’s travel down... read more

Demolition Derby: how a special cylinder head survives when all coolant is lost.

To those unfamiliar with the practice, Demolition Derby events provide handsome purses, especially at large fairs. At Yolo County in Northern California the promoters advertise a prize of $23,000 and rewards of $10,000 to $20,000 is often the standard at major fairs. Even more lucrative is the Topeka, Kansas, Blizzard Blast, which attracts 1,000 entries and offers $30,000 in prize money. Rewards at smaller county fairs, vary between $2,500 and $5,000, which appeals to a Derby class known as Limited Weld. But for the more seriously minded—those competing in the Modified and Pro Modified classes—car preparation consumes 120 to 150 hours of mostly reinforcing work. To assume that successful Derby contestants casually select their vehicles from junk yards, sally forth to the next event and conquer is an illusion.  Derby cars perform in an open pit, each one with an objective to be the last vehicle moving, disabling all others in the process. With vehicles built like tanks, some weighing 6,000 to 8,000lbs, it’s no surprise their engines need adequate low-end torque not only to move defiantly but also to generate sufficient bulldozing force to disable the others. Engines: Derby engines, unlike conventional competition power units, are obliged to survive without coolant because cooling systems are inevitably destroyed in the heat of battle–conditions so severe they devastate normal cylinder heads. “First and foremost”, says Indiana engine builder Lance Stillwell, “those engines need durability; they must have resilience to stand a chance of winning.” Stillwell’s Terra Haute operation serves a diverse racing market, including a dozen Derby contestants. To maintain valve train stability, they use specific camshaft contours to generate... read more

Injector sizing and boost-referencing the fuel injected engine for centrifugal supercharging.

By Sam Logan: If larger injectors are installed—that is, injectors with a greater flow rate—an engine tuning shop is usually required to re-tune the map—the fuel curve—to achieve the correct air-fuel ratio. To acquire a safer tune in a supercharged engine, where cylinder heat increases with boost, tuning shops will often adjust the air-fuel ratio to 12.0:1 at full throttle as opposed to around 12.8:1 on a naturally aspirated engine. In cruising conditions, air-fuel ratios will remain at 14.7:1. The best way to give maintenance to your carburetor is by doing an ultrasonic carburettor cleaning. The size of the injector limits the amount of horsepower generated, and calculations are used to decide the appropriate injector for desired maximum rpm and horsepower. They are calculated in pounds-per-hour of fuel dispersed. For example, 25lbs-per-hr is sufficient to support 350hp; 45lbs-per-hr is sufficient for 500hp and so on. Here is a table with more particulars: FLOW RATE DEFINITION, CALCULATING HORSEPOWER RANGE. Horsepower is measured at crankshaft. Injector Flow RateNaturally Aspirated EngineEngine w/ Power Adder19 lbs./hr.225-290 hp185-240 hp24 lbs./hr.280-360 hp240-300 hp30 lbs./hr.350-450 hp300-375 hp36 lbs./hr.425-540 hp350-450 hp42 lbs./hr.500-625 hp410-525 hp46 lbs./hr.540-690 hp450-575 hp52 lbs./hr.610-775 hp510-650 hp60 lbs./hr710-900 hp590-750 hp Supporting a supercharged engine with sufficient fuel is a moving target—there are numerous factors to consider, even the model year of the same engine and vehicle brand. The route is determined by the amount of supercharge boost and the capacity of the fuel pump along with the flow capability of the fuel injectors. Avoid confusion: Injector flow capability is measured in lbs/hr—not psi. Supercharging with boost referencing or booster pump or larger fuel injectors:... read more

Superchargers and carbureted fuel system upgrades.

By V. Moore: Idle and cruise conditions don’t alter fuel consumption appreciably, but supercharge boost conditions do. Therefore, it’s sensible and probably necessary to increase fuel pressure relative to boost pressure, upgrading to a larger capacity electric fuel pump and bypass fuel pressure regulator. Bypassing fuel systems using a return-style regulator are the most efficient kind. They control fuel pressure constantly to the engine and return the surplus to the tank. The system is more responsive to fluctuating fuel demands, and as the fuel circulates from hot engine bays, it averts power losses and stalling from vapor locks. The advantage of the in-tank fuel pump is durability because it is submerged in cool fuel. Also, it is much easier to push fuel than to pull fuel. The disadvantage of the in-tank fuel pump, especially with high performance vehicles, is that if the fuel level in the tank is low, the fuel becomes warm because the pump is warm and the desired cooling effect is lost. Best practice is not to allow fuel level to fall below half tank or avoid driving with low fuel. The formula for upgrading a fuel system. The formula for determining a fuel system’s capability is based on a vehicle’s horsepower output. Typically, an engine consumes ½lb of fuel per horsepower per hour. Therefore, feeding 500hp requires 250lbs of fuel per hour. As 1 gallon of fuel weighs approximately 7lbs, simply divide 250 by 7 to find the answer, which is 35.7 gallons. Thus, a fuel pump is required that generates a minimum of 40 gallons (150 liters) per hour to feed the engine at... read more

Boost referencing the blow-through carburetor (4150-style) and fuel pressure regulator

By V. Moore: Conventional carburetors operate at prevailing barometric pressures, from oxygen-rich sea level to oxygen-lean Denver, a mile high in Colorado. Blow-through carburetors, which work in conjunction with centrifugal superchargers and turbochargers, operate with boosted pressure. It’s a contrasting concept that accelerates the induction process. It impels higher velocity fuel flow through the main jets and robustly emulsifies the air-fuel mixture in the metering passageways, as it makes its way to the carburetor’s boost venturii. The boost venturii are carefully positioned in a choked area, an area with a reduced cross-section to increase the air speed. Increased air speed lowers the air pressure at the small discharge orifice in the booster, extracting the air-fuel mixture into the air stream on its journey to the cylinders. When boost pressure enters the fuel bowls, via the two vent tubes, its force lowers the fuel levels and quickly becomes so potent with increasing engine speed that the needle-and-seat valves cannot keep pace with demand. To keep the carburetor flowing relative to boost, the float bowls must be pressurized. As boost pressure increases, fuel flowing through the metering systems increases proportionally. Further, as the float bowls are pressurized, the fuel pump must overcome that boost pressure (as opposed to the naturally aspirated condition of pumping fuel through the needle-and-seats into float bowls that are vented to atmosphere). If 7psi of fuel pressure were employed to a normally aspirated engine and 7psi of boost applied to the float bowls, the pressure in the float bowls and the pressure from the fuel pump would be equal, causing zero fuel to flow through the needle-and-seats. So,... read more

Bradenton, Florida: Inaugural TorqStorm Superchargers 2020 True Street event

By Sam Logan: Naturally, there’s a desire within the TorqStorm operation to introduce enthusiasts to their billet supercharger. But also there’s a keenness to acquaint them with the racing scene, especially those with no former competition experience. So 2020 marks the beginning of a new era for TorqStorm, an initiative with the NMCA to sponsor their well-established True Street class. True Street rules call for the entrants to take a 30-mile cruise followed by three successive drag strip passes. As a special feature for this event, they were led by Drag Week winner Tom Bailey and his Camaro with YouTube celebrity Cleetus McFarland occupying the passenger’s seat.     The race results were as follows: Mike French triumphed, motoring to an overall win with an 8.77sec average, while Jason Rollins claimed runner-up, finishing with an 8.96 average. Willard Howard was the tour de force in the 9-second category, Jeff Smith the 10-second, and TorqStorm’s own Jeff Neibarger was the 11-second winner. Grant Martin won the 12-second category, with Jose Vera and Jimmy Hodges winning the 13-second and 14-second categories respectively.  Branden Arila took the spoils in the 15-second... read more

Steering feel: In all probability 90% of oval track racers don’t know how to acquire it

By Archie Bosman–  Kennesaw, GA: Using the correct flow valve: Electric steering in mass-produced road cars is now widespread. It is a little like ethanol in our fuel: you’ll be hard pressed to find an enthusiast who favors it yet we are stuck with it. But actually we aren’t. Hydraulic power steering systems that provide superior feel are still readily available to the racer. However, it is not widely known that steering pumps can be tuned for more feel or alternatively for more assistance. Optimizing feel to the racer’s steering is a bewildering task for most of us. But KRC Power Steering accomplished it by introducing a range of replaceable flow control valves for their hydraulic steering pumps. The flow control valves, nine in number, perform a function similar to that of jets in a carburetor. In varying their flow from 4 to 12 liters per minute, approximately one to three gallons, the largest orifice provides maximum steering assistance while the smallest provides maximum steering feel. Though the standard KRC pump flows 8 liters per minute, by using flow control valves with larger orifices, those marked B, C, D, or E, the flow rate can be increased to 12 liters per minute (3.17gals) in one-liter increments. The higher letter indicates greater hydraulic assistance, although less feel. In contrast, flow valves marked with numbers 4, 5, 6, and 7 provide less assistance; the lower the number, the greater the feel but the less assistance. Momentary loss of power or “pump catch” So how do you achieve optimum steering feel? According to KRC’s Ken Roper you reduce the size of flow... read more

How to change the oil on a TorqStorm supercharger.

Since TorqStorm’s beginning, about ten years ago, inquirers have written on virtually every aspect of forced induction. Oil-changing procedures is a popular topic. Required at 10,000-mile intervals or once a year, whichever comes first, here are the four steps with pictures and captions to clarify. Step 1 Remove your supercharger from your car and flip it over onto backside to access drain plug. Step 2 Remove drain plug with 1/4in Allen wrench and drain oil. Step 3 Through the drain hole, pour 6fl oz of TorqStorm-specific oil. Step 4 Replace drain plug and tighten to 15lbs- ft of torque.   An oil change must be performed every 10,000 miles or once a year, whichever comes first. Failure to do so will void the warranty. Oil can be purchased directly from TorqStorm for $6: Part# ARP-OIL-GT46   TorqStorm SuperchargersTorqStorm.comTelephone (616) 706-5580 or visit www.TorqStorm.com or e-mail the knowledgeable Chris Beardsley... read more

TorqStorm Superchargers has broadened its focus.

In 2020, TorqStorm will participate in a new campaign, sponsoring NMCA’s True Street, a quarter-mile drag racing class for grass-roots enthusiasts, including those who have never raced before. The racing campaign promises to be a welcome addition, particularly the early March event for those who enjoy a little racing and an early vacation in the sun. With scarcely time to draw breath following a busy 2019 season of shows, developing new supercharger applications, moving to larger premises, and managing increased production schedules, 2020 is hoped to be a landmark year.   Both TorqStorm co-founders, Chris Brooker and Scott Oshinski, plan participation at all six NMCA racing venues as well as the two LS Fest events and perhaps two Mopar adventures (Hemi Fest at Summit Sports Park, Norwalk, and Mopar Nationals at National Trails Columbus). The True Street calendar of events is as follows: March 5-8         18th Annual NMCA       Bradenton Motorsports Park     Bradenton, FL              April 2-5           12th Annual NMCA       Atlanta Dragway                    Commerce, GA May 28-31        Inaugural NMCA            Technology R’way, Gateway      Madison, IL July 30-Aug 2    15th Annual NMCA       Route 66 Raceway                     Joliet, IL Aug 27-30         19th Annual NMCA       Summit M’Sports Park               Norwalk, OH Sep 24-27         19th Annual NMCA       Indianapolis Raceway Park         Indianapolis, IN NMCA’s True Street class permits enthusiasts to race on premium tracks at a cost of $125 over the course of three days, (Thursday is regarded as set-up day) and the average car count for the class numbers around 50 but can climb to 125 at some venues. Prizes are awarded to the overall winner and runner-up. Prizes are also awarded for the best 9-second average, 10sec, 11sec,... read more

Celebrating 10th year of supercharger production.

Following ten years of supercharger manufacture, TorqStorm has developed approximately 100 variations, which, of course, increases to 300 variations when three choices of finish are included. Chris Beardsley of Technical Sales elaborates, “Consider our small-block Chevrolet kits, for example, these are available with left- or right-hand mounting and with long- or short-style water pump. They are also available in single or twin configurations as well as our comprehensive Plus kit. In addition, there are two different twin kits: a regular twin and a 2XR kit—and all of these represent just our small-block Chevrolet offerings!”   Future developments? “The Hemi guys,” says company co-founder Chris Brooker, “regularly inquire about complete kits; that is, a turnkey kit that provides a tune, injectors, cooler, and piping. When we eventually pursue the development of these, we will probably first focus on the Ram truck, Camaro, Pontiac G8, Pontiac GTO, and Silverado. At the moment we have these—about six or eight kits available—but they are incomplete and non-smog compliant.” Source: TorqStorm SuperchargersTorqStorm.comTelephone (616) 706-5580 or visit www.TorqStorm.com or e-mail the knowledgeable Chris Beardsley... read more